Barthes, Roland. “The Death of the Author.” In Authorship: From Plato to the Postmodern. Ed. Sean Burke. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP Ltd., 2000. 125-130.
Barthes argues that it is not the author who speaks in a text, but rather, language itself. The concept of a single (male) author is one rooted in Enlightenment individualism, an idea so powerful that it reduced the text to an explanation and an understanding of the author. Instead, Barthes claims, an author and a text are born simultaneously (126); the former does not give birth to the latter, for the act of writing is not an act of reporting ideas but, rather, a performative act. Writing and texts do not have single, solitary lines of understanding: they are multivoiced and understanding them can only be a process of disentangling the lines, not completely deciphering them or figuring them out (129). The work of assigning meaning to a text, of compiling the voices into some sort of understandable whole, does not belong to the author/writer. It is the duty of the reader. Barthes calls for “the birth of the reader” at the expense of the Author. (130).
“The birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the Author” (130).
“A text’s unity lies not in its origin but in its destination” (129) author-reader
“Everything is to be disentangled, nothing deciphered” (129)
“Life never does more than imitate the book, and the book itself is only a tissue of signs, an imitation that is lost, infinitely deferred” (128).
A text is a “multi-dimensional space in which a variety of writings, none of them original, blend and clash” (128)
“Writing is the destruction of every voice, of every point of origin…Writing is that neutral, composite, oblique space where our subject slips away, the negative where all identity is lost, starting with the very identity of the body writing” (125).
“The voice loses its origin, the author enters his own death, writing begins” (125).
not assigning an ultimate final meaning to a text is to refuse God (and reason, science, and law) – very postmodern (129)
assigning an author limits a text, closes it, allows it to be criticized as an object