White, Edward M. “Holisticism.” CCC 35 (1985): 400-409. In Assessing Writing. Eds. Huot and O’Neil, 19-28.
White contends that assessment must be grounded in humanism, seeing writing and reading as whole-body and whole-mind processes, and in his essay, explains the argument, method, and limitations of holistic assessment of student writing. The first investigations into a cost-effective, efficient holistic scoring process began at ETS in the 1970s, which transformed “general impression” scoring into holistic scoring by introducing constraints that made these assessment reliable. These constraints included things like controlled essay reading, using rubrics and scoring guides in tandem with anchor papers, and multiple independent scoring. Holistic scoring tries to assess more completely the complicated task of writing better than objective tests, but still it only succeeds in ranking student (not giving any other educationally-relevant information) and is not entirely reliable due to the shifting nature of the writing prompts and the variability in scorers.
“Writing must be seen as a whole, and that the evaluating of writing cannot be split into a sequence of objective activities” (28). – no analytic scoring