Norman, Donald. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. New York: Basic Books, 2004.
Designers must account for people’s emotional and cognitive responses to three aspects or levels inherent in any design: visceral (immediate, automatic, appearance-based); behavioral (function, pleasure and effectiveness of use); and reflective (personal satisfaction through memories, self-image, intellectualization.) The things we like act as symbols to us and have meaning in our lives. Norman describes and shows many examples of designs that successfully tap into a person’s affect – their subconscious value judgments that translate into emotions. Good designs are also rhetorical: they fit a particular context, culture, location, and audience, so no one design can be univerally appealing. Good designers are those who are able to keenly observe people’s behaviors and tap into people’s unarticulated needs, seeing the product not as a decontextualized thing but something that is used by someone.
William Morris: If you want a golden rule that will fit everybody, this is it: Have nothing in your houses that you do not know to be useful, or believe to be beautiful.” (“The Beauty of Life” 1880)
“The emotional side of design may be more critical to a product’s success than its practical elements” (5)
cupholders as an unarticulated consumer need
personalization and customization
good designs seduce people – Csikszentmihalyi’s flow
success at the reflective level can outweigh the other two aspects – visceral and behavioral